Inspiration for Activism!
- Tireless commitment to the advancement of the nursing profession and the advancement of Black and other minority nurses.
- First Black nurse to serve on a board of a state nursing association (Florida State Nurses Association).
- Founded the four-year nursing program at Hampton University in 1943, and then from 1945 to 1953, she was dean of Florida A&M University’s School of Nursing (both historically Black Universities).
- Took personal stands against discrimination early in her career — refused to ride in the freight elevator at Florida State Nursing meetings; insisted on being addressed by her title (as were all White nurses) at a time when Black nurses were only addressed as “Nurse” (not as “Miss Carnegie” or any other title).
- Longtime member of the American Association for the History of Nursing; unfailingly alerted members to the contributions of African American nurses on any topic under discussion.
- Author of three editions of “The Path We Tread: Blacks in Nursing Worldwide, 1854-1994.”
- On the Editorial Staff of the American Journal of Nursing from 1953-1978.
- Editor of Nursing Research from 1973-1978.
- During the 30 years after her retirement in 1978, she remained active as a consultant, author, visiting professor and advocate for African American and other minority nurses.