Resources for “Overdue Reckoning on Racism in Nursing”

Return to the main “Overdue Reckoning” page

The following resources are not required to participate, but will serve as background for our discussions.

Canty, L., Nyirati, C., Taylor, V., & Chinn, P. L. (2022). An Overdue Reckoning on Racism in Nursing. The American Journal of Nursing, 122(2), 44–52.

DiAngelo, R. (2018). White fragility: Why it’s so hard for white people to talk about racism. Beacon Press.

Mwilu, Jacinta BSN, RN Race vs. Racism: The Eligibility of African American Race as a Risk Factor, AJN, American Journal of Nursing: August 2021 – Volume 121 – Issue 8 – p 11 doi: 10.1097/01.NAJ.0000767736.82258.17

Schroeder, C., & DiAngelo, R. (2010). Addressing Whiteness in Nursing Education The Sociopolitical Climate Project at the University of Washington School of Nursing. ANS. Advances in Nursing Science, 33, 244–255.

Weitzel, J., Luebke, J., Wesp, L., Graf, M. D. C., Ruiz, A., Dressel, A., & Mkandawire-Valhmu, L. (2020). The Role of Nurses as Allies Against Racism and Discrimination: An Analysis of Key Resistance Movements of Our TimeANS. Advances in Nursing Science43(2), 102–113. post “Decolonizing Nursing post “Nursing and Racism: Are We Part of the Problem, Part of the Solution, or Both?

Nursing Organizations

National Hispanic Nurses Association

The National Alaska Native American Indian Nurses Association (NANAINA)

Philippine Nurses Association of America

American Indian and Alaska Native Nurses Association

National Black Nurses Association

Mary Mahoney Professional Nurses Organization

Greater NYC Black Nurses Association Chapter, Inc.

VIRs (Very Important Resources)

As soon as we announced this discussion series, we started receiving important suggestions and resources from nurses who participated! Many of these sources address the work that white people need to engage in meaningful anti-racism work. But they are important for all of us as we deepen our commitment to heal racism in nursing. We have collected these resources here so that everyone can benefit, and will continue to add other resources going forward.

Deborah Roberts – The Elephant in the Room.

This article, written by our “Reckoning” participant Deborah Roberts, was published-ahead-of-print in Nursing2020 on October 20, 2020! (an auspicious date – 10/20/2020). The article is “open” so you can go to the journal website, read the article and share it far and wide! Nurse Roberts tells it like it is:

Nurses of color do not engage in
cross-racial discussions with their
White coworkers because speaking
about racism often triggers an
overwhelming stress response in
White coworkers who lack the
racial stamina to cope. (p.2)

Indeed, this “Reckoning” project aims to turn this around – to bring the voices of nurses of color to the forefront, and to call on white nurses to build the racial stamina to cope!

Anti-racism Daily

Subscribe to this daily “feed” that provides in-depth information to raise awareness and support action to confront and change systemic racist practices. Read the archives that address a wide range of topics – many of which most people have never recognized as “racist” or sustaining racism.

This 1 hour 34 minute webinar is presented by Sandra Kim, founder of the website Everyday Feminism. They offer resources on a number of different topics, but their large collection of articles and webinars on social justice and racism is an excellent place for all of us to “deep dive”! One important article that focuses on the challenges in education is well worth taking in: 5 Things Well-Meaning White Educators Should Consider If They Really Want to Close the Achievement Gap

Black Mamas Matter Alliance: Setting the Standard for Holistic Care of and for Black Women

A Black Paper published in 2018, the contents of this report sets a new standard for addressing the disparities in health outcomes for Black mothers. Available for download at no cost!

Indigenous Nurses You Should Know About

Indigenous people have been nearly annihilated in North America, and are still subject to the worst effects of racist policies and actions. One “symptom” of this persistent form of injustice is the fact that most nurses educated in western nursing programs know nothing or next to nothing about our indigenous colleagues – past and present. This resource provides a start in righting this wrong.

The National Native American Boarding School Healing Coalition

Provides education, advocacy and healing for the social, emotional, spiritual, and cultural devastation from boarding school experiences. The pain and suffering of forced removal of children from their families, and the abuse of children in the schools has created trauma that has passed down to Native American individuals, families, communities and Tribal Nations today. The time for healing inter-generational trauma is now. From the coalition’s website:

The truth about the US Indian boarding school policy has largely been written out of the history books, and we still don’t know how many students attended. Many have estimated that there were nearly 500 government-funded Indian boarding and day schools across the US in the 19th and 20th centuries, and NABS has identified 357 boarding schools alone. In boarding schools, Indian children were forcibly abducted by government agents, sent to schools hundreds of miles away, and beaten, starved, or otherwise abused when they spoke their native languages.

Juliette G. Blount, NP

Juliette Blount is an Adult Nurse Practitioner in New York City providing Primary and Women’s Healthcare to diverse patient populations. Her website is a valuable resource for information and educational programs for providers who are committed to reducing implicit bias and health disparities for patients of color. Juliette has a Bachelors’ Degree from Howard University, received her Master’s Degree in Nursing and Adult Nurse Practitioner Certification from Hunter College of the City University of New York, and is an Alumna of the Duke-Johnson & Johnson Nurse Leadership Program. She has 30 years of clinical experience in healthcare, has been recognized with awards for both Customer Service and Clinical Excellence, am active in the local Nurse Practitioner professional organization, and volunteers in her community by educating the public about becoming empowered healthcare consumers. Visit her website for a comprehensive list of health/resources.

From Josephine Ensign

PHLV Radio – Filipino Radio in Las Vegas Interview on Racism and Nursing

Interview on August 21, 2020 with Angela Amar, Dean at UNLV School of Nursing and Minnie Wood, Lecturer/Clinical Instructor at UNLV School of Nursing. Hosted by Doris Bauer, President of the Philippine Nurses Association of Nevada – PNANV.


10 Things You Can Do to Promote Anti-Racism, Diversity, Equity and Inclusion. (2021, September 1). University of Washington School of Nursing.

Barbee, E. L. (1993). Racism in U. S. Nursing. Medical Anthropology Quarterly, 7(4), 346–362.

Barbee, E. L. (1994). A Black Feminist Approach to Nursing Research. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 16(5), 495–506.

Bell, B. (2020). White dominance in nursing education: A target for anti‐racist efforts. Nursing Inquiry.

Benjamin, R. (2020, April 15). Black Skin, White Masks: Racism, Vulnerability & Refuting Black Pathology (vdeo & transcript). Department of African American Studies, Princeton University.

Blanchet Garneau, A., Browne, A. J., & Varcoe, C. (2017). Drawing on antiracist approaches toward a critical antidiscriminatory pedagogy for nursing. Nursing Inquiry.

Emami, A., & de Castro, B. (2021). Confronting racism in nursing. Nursing Outlook, 69(5), 714–716.

Gatrall, C. E. (2020, October 29). Marie Branch and the Power of Nursing. Nursing Clio. Nurse author and activist Gatrall documents the history of Marie Branch. In the 1970s, buoyed by the momentum of the Civil Rights and Black Power movements, Black nurse and activist Marie Branch took on the challenge of implementing antiracist philosophy and practice in nursing education.

Hall, J. M., & Fields, B. (2012). Race and microaggression in nursing knowledge development. ANS. Advances in Nursing Science, 35(1), 25–38.

Hine, D. C., & Others. (1989). Black women in white: Racial conflict and cooperation in the nursing profession, 1890-1950. Indiana University Press Bloomington.

Iheduru-Anderson, K., Okoro, F. O., & Moore, S. S. (2022). Diversity and Inclusion or Tokens? A Qualitative Study of Black Women Academic Nurse Leaders in the United States. Global Qualitative Nursing Research, 9, 23333936211073116.

Iheduru-Anderson, K. C. (2021). The White/Black hierarchy institutionalizes White supremacy in nursing and nursing leadership in the United States. Journal of Professional Nursing: Official Journal of the American Association of Colleges of Nursing, 37(2), 411–421.

Iheduru-Anderson K, Shingles RR, Akanegbu C.(2020) Discourse of race and racism in nursing: An integrative review of literature. Public Health Nurs. 2021 Jan;38(1):115-130. doi: 10.1111/phn.12828. Epub 2020 Nov 6. PMID: 33155328.

Lewenson, S. B., & Graham-Perel, A. (2020). “You Don”t Have Any Business Being This Good’: An Oral History Interview with Bernardine Lacey. In AJN, American Journal of Nursing (Vol. 120, Issue 8, pp. 40–47). (free access)

McGibbon, E., Mulaudzi, F. M., Didham, P., Barton, S., & Sochan, A. (2014). Toward decolonizing nursing: the colonization of nursing and strategies for increasing the counter-narrative. Nursing Inquiry, 21(3), 179–191.

Mc Intosh, Peggy. (July/August 1989). White Privilege: Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack. Peace and Freedom.

Menakem, R. (2017). My Grandmother’s Hands: Racialized Trauma and the Pathway to Mending Our Hearts and Bodies. Central Recovery Press.

Metzl, J. M., & Roberts, D. E. (2014). Structural Competency Meets Structural Racism: Race, Politics, and the Structure of Medical Knowledge. AMA Journal of Ethics, 16(9), 674–690. Read online:

Montgomery, T. M., Jawanza R. Bundy, J. R., Cofer, D., & Nicholls, E. M. (2021, February 1). Black Americans in Nursing Education – what the future holds. American Nurse.

Moore SS, Drake D. We are the solution to our problem: A brief review of the history of racism and nursing. Women’s Healthcare: A Clinical Journal for NPs. 2021;10(4):34-29. Accessed August 24, 2021.

Moorley, C., Darbyshire, P., Serrant, L., Mohamed, J., Ali, P., & De Souza, R. (2020). “Dismantling structural racism: Nursing must not be caught on the wrong side of history.” Journal of Advanced Nursing. (free access)

YSN announces its Commitment to Anti-Racism. (2020, June 18). Yale University.


DiAngelo, R. (2018). White fragility: Why it’s so hard for white people to talk about racism. Beacon Press.

DiAngelo, R. (2021). Nice Racism: How Progressive White People Perpetuate Racial Harm. Beacon Press.

Fleming, C. M. (2018). How to Be Less Stupid About Race: On Racism, White Supremacy, and the Racial Divide. Beacon Press.

Jackson, Regina, & Rao, Saira. (2022). White Women: Everything You Already Know About Your Own Racism and How to Do Better. Penguin.

Kendi, I. X. (2019). How to Be an Antiracist. Random House Publishing Group.

Saad, L. F. (2020). Me and White Supremacy: Combat Racism, Change the World, and Become a Good Ancestor. Sourcebooks, Inc.

Wilkerson, I. (2020). Caste: The Origins of Our Discontents. Random House.

A concise history of systemic* racism in the U.S.

* See an excellent explanation of the terms “systemic” and “systematic” here

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