Inspiration for Activism
- Esteemed nursing “leader with vision, insight, and wise counsel who had a major impact in the advancement of nursing, health care, and academic programs“
- inspired to become a nurse because of her mother, who wanted to be a nurse but could not because of her race
- Strong advocate for Black women and Black nurses, urging baccalaureate education for all
- First nurse to conduct clinical experiments that evaluated nursing practices
- First African-American woman to be named as a Dean of Nursing, University of Michigan (1981). Subsequently appointed as Vice-Provost of the University, serving until her retirement.
- First woman and first nurse to serve as deputy director of the National Institute of Mental Health 1979-1981
- As President of the American Academy of Nursing (1987-89), led the establishment of Expert Panels to develop strong policy statements based on nursing expertise